Alcoholics and Heroin Addicts
It is well established that in both food and drug addicted individuals, there is dopamine resistance due to an association with the DRD2 gene A 1 allele. Evidence is emerging whereby the potential of utilizing a natural, nonaddicting, safe, putative D2 agonist may find its place in recovery from reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) in patients addicted to psychoactive chemicals. Utilizing quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) as an imaging tool, we show the impact of Synaptarnine Complex Variant} C8220TM as a putative activator of the mesolimbic system. We demonstrate for the first time that its intravenous administration reduces or “normalizes” aberrant electrophysiological parameters of the reward circuitry site.
As per the study evaluated the effects of a putative activator of brain reward circuitry on outcomes in a 1y prospective comprehensive outpatient clinical program. As part of the Gene Narcotic Attenuation Program, Haveos Synaptarniner was administered for the treatment of substance use disorder. Seventy-six patients (45 males and 31 females; mean age, 33y) who had been given a diagnosis of serious substance use disorder were recruited. After exclusion of 15 patients who dropped out before the end of the study, self-reported craving decreased from program entrance to 12wk (visual analog scale whereby 0 repre-sents no craving and 5, the strongest craving) for 61 compliant patients (mean decrease, 2.85, 95% confidence interval and this improvement was significant. Building up to relapse scores (each of 5 individual items and summary value) showed similar improvement after 1y of treatment; the mean decrease in scores was significant for stress, depression, anger, anxiety, drug craving, and summary building up to relapse. Also, recovery score measures of energy level and ability to refrain from drug-seeking behavior showed significant mean increases from entry to 1y. During the study, the alcoholic dropout rate was only 7%, which was signif-icantly lower than the 73% dropout rate reported for psychostimulant users. Although these results are significant, any interpretation must await the performance of rigorous double-blind studies.
Association studies have amassed strong evidence implicating the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene in the etiology of alcoholism (Blum et al. 1990: Blum et al. 2000). The DRD2 gene also has been found to be involved in other substance use disorders including cocaine, nicotine, and opioid dependence, as well as in obesity. These many disorders often are considered to have a common characteristic: Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) (Blum et al. 1996: Chen et al. 2007). RDS refers to the breakdown of a cascade of neurotransmitters in the brain in which one reaction triggers another — the reward cascade — and resultant aberrant conduct. The relation of dopaminergic neurotransmission to various stress reactions also has been known for many years. The current understanding is that multiple genes interacting with dopaminergic pathways are emerging as potential therapeutic targets, especially in the treatment of addictions. Thus, because brain dopamine has been implicated as the so called “anti-stress” molecule, (Bowirrat and Oscar-Berman 2005) we sought to investigate anti-anxiety effects of Synaptamine Complex [K3220], a dopaminergic activator, in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled study of two groups of patients with RDS. One group consisted of alcoholics, and the other group consisted of polydrug abusers. We reasoned that since nearly 400 different genes may work in concert to impact dopamine and glutamine release in addictions, (Li et al. 2008). Findings potentially could provide insight regarding the involvement of dopamine in the addiction process, which in turn could lead to therapies based on influencing dopaminergic signaling (Blum et al. 2007).